The Effect of Winter Cattle Feeding Systems on Soil Nutrients, Forage Growth, Animal Performance, and Economics
(Abstract not available.)
(Abstract not available.)
Growing consumer interest in grass-fed beef products has raised a number of questions with regard to the perceived differences in nutritional quality between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA) composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (C18:2) isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA) (C18:1 t11), a precursor to CLA, and omega-3 (n-3) FAs on a g/g fat basis. While the overall concentration of total SFAs is not different between feeding regimens, grass-finished beef tends toward a higher proportion of cholesterol neutral stearic FA (C18:0), and less cholesterol-elevating SFAs such as myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) FAs. Several studies suggest that grass-based diets elevate precursors for Vitamin A and E, as well as cancer fighting antioxidants such as glutathione (GT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as compared to grain-fed contemporaries. Fat conscious consumers will also prefer the overall lower fat content of a grass-fed beef product. However, consumers should be aware that the differences in FA content will also give grass-fed beef a distinct grass flavor and unique cooking qualities that should be considered when making the transition from grain-fed beef. In addition, the fat from grass-finished beef may have a yellowish appearance from the elevated carotenoid content (precursor to Vitamin A). It is also noted that grain-fed beef consumers may achieve similar intakes of both n-3 and CLA through the consumption of higher fat grain-fed portions.
Nutrition journal, volume 9, page 10
animal feed, animals, antioxidants, antioxidants: analysis, cattle, cereals, conjugated, conjugated: analysis, fatty acids, fatty acids: analysis, linoleic acids, meat, meat: analysis, oleic acids, oleic acids: analysis, omega-3, omega-3: analysis, omega-6, omega-6: analysis, poaceae, taste, vitamin e, vitamin e: analysis, beta carotene, beta carotene: analysis
Lists trees and shrubs that provide significant forage for native bees. Other AgroF Notes include design tips for providing native bee nesting sites, as well as pesticide considerations.
Agroforestry Notes, volume 32, pages 1-4
Review of the geographic extent, distribution, plant communities, forage productivity and animal production of Crown range in British Columbia.
Canadian Journal of Animal Science, volume 73, pages 779-794
1993, 6tat en colombie-britannique, 6tendue g6ographique, 7, 73, 79-, 794, a, anim, animal production, article passe en revue, b, bawtree, beef cattle, british columbia, can, d, des bovins de boucherie, et de la production, et quinton, forage production, j, l, la rdpartition, les com-, m, mclean, sci, sur les terres de, survol des ressources fourragbres, wikeem
The chemical composition, the fatty acids profile, and conjugated linoleic acids content in Longissimus muscle (LM) of steers have been determined. For such, 18 steers (6, Nellore, NEL) and their Simmental (6, NSI), and Santa Gertrudes (6, NSG) crossbreds finished in pasture system with Brachiaria brizantha cv. marandu for about 3Â months with approximate weight at slaughter of 480Â kg at average age approximate of 25Â months. The lipid content increased in the following order influenced by genetic groups: Nellore, F1 Nellore Ã— Simmental and F1 Nellore Ã— Santa Gertrudes crossbreds. The lipid content increased while moisture, ash and protein contents decreased. The content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) was affected by genetic groups. The conjugated linoleic acids contents (CLA) in fat were similar in the genetic groups, but the quantity of CLA concentrations in muscle lipids of steers with larger total lipid was higher. The predominant CLA was CLA cis-9, trans-11. Â© 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Livestock Science, volume 110, issue 1, pages 57-63
beef, conjugated linoleic acids, crossbreds, longissimus, pasture
Over the past decade, there has been growth in scientific research on welfare in modern dairy production systems. The issue of cow comfort and how it relates to the risk of lameness has received considerable interest. The objectives of this thesis were to establish reliable methods of using lying behaviour as a measure of cow comfort, to describe the variation in lying behaviour of individual cows within farm and between farms, and to evaluate the relationship between stall comfort, lying behaviour, and lameness. A cross-farm assessment was conducted on 43 commercial dairy farms in the Fraser Valley region of British Columbia. Electronic data loggers recorded lying behaviour of 2033 cows at 1-min intervals for 5 days. The first study established that monitoring at least 30 cows per farm for 3 days provides an accurate estimate of the lying behaviour of the lactating cows at that time. Cows averaged 11 h/d lying down, separated into 9 bouts/d with an average duration of 88 min/bout. Cows were scored for lameness using a 5-point Numerical Rating System (NRS) in which 1 = sound and 5 = severely lame. A subsample of 1319 cows from 28 farms using either deep-bedded stalls (n = 11) or mattress stalls (n = 17) were used for the second study. Overall, 21% of the cows were scored as NRS = 3 and 7% as NRS = 4; no cow was scoared as NRS = 5. Mattress farms had higher prevalence of NRS = 4 compared to deep-bedded farms (9 vs. 4%, respectively). Cows with NRS = 4 housed on deep-bedded stalls spent 1.6 h/d more lying, and had longer bouts compared to cows with NRS ! 3, but there were no behavioural differences among cows with different degrees of lameness housed on mattress stalls. Extreme lying behaviour, particularly the high lying times (" 14 h/d) and long lying bouts (" 99 min/bout) were associated with increased odds of lameness, regardless of stall surface. Stall comfort, lying behaviour, and lameness are interlinked, and should all be integrated as measures of cow comfort.
(Abstract not available.)
In 2012 and 2013, the Farm Practices & Climate Change Adaptation research project studied the potential for six on-farm practices to reduce risk or increase resilience in a changing climate.
First, a framework was developed to evaluate the six selected practices. Then, information was collected from producers on 29 farms ranging in size, type and commodity. This data was used to assess the practices and to identify potential barriers to implementation or areas for further research.
foraging, management of pastures
Fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular fat (IMF) in M. Longissimus dorsi (LD) was measured in 72 steers from Angus (A), Charolais ?? Angus (CHA??A) and Holstein Argentine (HA) breeds. The steers were allotted to four dietary treatments of six animals each: T1, steers grazed on pasture; T2, steers supplemented with cracked corn grain (0.7% of live-weight) daily and free access to pasture; T3, steers supplemented with cracked corn grain (1% of live-weight) daily and free access to pasture; and T4, feedlot (concentrate based on corn, alfalfa hay and soybean meal without access to pasture). At slaughter weight, samples of LD at the 11th rib were used for intramuscular lipid analysis. The diet was shown to be more important than breed in determining FA composition. Pasture beef had higher percentages of saturated fatty acids (SFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and lower percentages of IMF, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), n-6 PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratios than feedlot beef. HA beef presented lower percentages of SFA and more MUFA with a higher n-6/n-3 ratio than A and CHA??A. Comparing grass and feedlot beef the amounts of FA in muscle (mg/100 g) were, respectively 18:3 n-3 (44 vs. 11 mg), CLA (20 vs. 12 mg), 20:5 n-3 (20 vs. 11 mg), 22:5 n-5 (20 vs. 11 mg), 22:6 n-3 (12 vs. 6 mg) and n-3 PUFA (84 vs. 32 mg). Feedlot beef has more SFA (1372 vs. 1081 mg), MUFA (1574 vs. 1078 mg), PUFA (350 vs. 227 mg) and n-6 PUFA (318 vs.143 mg). ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meat Science, volume 79, issue 3, pages 500-508
beef, conjugated linoleic acid isomers (cla), fatty acids, intramuscular fat
This publication explores marketing alternatives for small-scale cattle ranchers who would like to add value to the beef they produce. Part One discusses methods to add value within the conventional marketing system, including retained ownership and cooperative marketing. Part Two introduces alternative marketing strategies, including niche markets for â€œnatural,â€ù lean, and organic beef. Production considerations for pasture-fi nished beef are given special attention. A section on direct marketing focuses on connecting with consumers and developing a product. Processing and legal issues are also covered. This publication also provides information on developing prices for retail beef based on wholesale prices and desired mark-up, and for determining carcass value. A list of resources provides suggestions for further reading, contact information for several producers and marketers of â€œalternativeâ€ù beef, and Web pages of interest.
Building Blocks for economic development and analysis of the cattle ranching industry.
(Abstract not available.)
FarmCentre.com, pages 1-2
Report on Canada Beef Organization
(Abstract not available.)
Journal of Range Management, volume 37, pages 349-352
The colour of bovine subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue (carcass fat) depends on the age, gender and breed of cattle. Diet is the most important extrinsic factor but its influence depends on the duration of feeding. Cattle produced under extensive grass-based production systems generally have carcass fat which is more yellow than their intensively-reared, concentrate-fed counterparts and this is caused by carotenoids from green forage. Although yellow carcass fat is negatively regarded in many countries, evidence suggests it may be associated with a healthier fatty acid profile and antioxidant content in beef, synonymous with grass feeding. Nonetheless, management strategies to reduce fat colour of grass-fed cattle are sought after. Current research suggests that yellow colour of this tissue is reduced if pasture-fed cattle are converted to a grain-based diet, which results in accretion of adipose tissue and dilution of carotenoids. Colour changes may depend on the initial yellow colour, the carotene and utilisable energy in the finishing diet, the duration of finishing, the amount of fat accumulated during finishing and the rate of utilisation of carotene from body fat. Differences in nutritional strategies which cause differences in fatty acid composition may be reflected by differences in fat colour and carotenoid concentration. Fat colour and carotenoids are prominent among a panoply of measurements which can aid the authentication of the dietary history and thus to some extent, the origin of beef, although this potential utility is complicated by the simultaneous rather than discrete use of forages and concentrates in real production systems. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meat Science, volume 81, issue 1, pages 28-45
bovine, carcass fat, carotenoids, colour, subcutaneous adipose tissue